The 36-year-old scored two late headers – to break and extend the record – after he had a penalty saved by Gavin Bazunu.
Ali Daei, who scored 109 goals for Iran between 1993 and 2006, held the record which Ronaldo equalled with a double against France at Euro 2020.
The Manchester United forward has also equalled Sergio Ramos’ European record for men’s caps – with his 180th Portugal appearance.
The world record – only ratified by Fifa this summer – is the 195 Malaysia caps won by Soh Chin Ann between 1969 and 1984.
Ronaldo, who rejoined United from Juventus on deadline day, and Daei are the only two male players to score 90 or more international goals.
“I’m so happy, not only because I beat the record, but for the special moment that we had,” he told RTE. “Two goals at the end of the game. I have to appreciate what the team did, we believed until the end. I’m so glad.”
This is the latest landmark to push the argument for the Portuguese to be considered an all-time great.
He is already the top scorer in club football’s top tournament, the European Cup/Champions League, a trophy he has won five times.
The former Real Madrid forward is also the top scorer in European Championship history (14) and in Euros and World Cups combined (21).